An Essay on the Shaking Palsy: Parkinson’s Disease 200 Years Later

Parkinson’s disease (PD) was first identified by James Parkinson in 1817. A chronic disorder of the central nervous system (CNS), it affects the basal ganglia and motor systems of the brain. It is characterised by the loss of A9 dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) area of the midbrain. Loss of these neurons leads to a decrease in the dopamine supply to their projection zones.

The underlying process for the observed cell death in this area is not yet known. It has, however, been shown that a build-up of Lewy Bodies could be, in part, responsible. Lewy Bodies are an aggregation of proteins that cause the normal cellular functions to be impaired or even stop completely. Symptoms of PD appear slowly over time, with the first symptom usually being a gait disturbance or a difficulty in writing.

 

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The War On Drugs Is Lost And We Should Finally Face It – PROSECUTION

MY LORD –

On 18th June 1971, Richard Nixon, the president of the United States declared the War on Drugs. Today, the US alone spends $51bilion every year on that endeavour, with over a quarter of a million dollars already spent since I started my summation. In summer 2016, we will be reaching almost 50 years of that war, and there is still no victory on the horizon.

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